Grain cultivation is the most important aspect of agriculture in Mexico and represents 50% of agricultural production.Main crops in the country are corn, sugar cane, sorghum, wheat, tomatoes, bananas, chiles, oranges, lemons, limes, mangoes and other tropical fruits, beans, barley, avocados, blue agave and coffee.
The most important crops for the domestic consumption of the country are wheat, beans, corn and sorghum. The most important export crops are sugar, coffee, fruits and vegetables, most are exported to the United States. The most important animal feed crop is alfalfa, followed by sorghum and corn.
Maize is still the most important crop in Mexico, it is grown in 60% of the crops and helps to provide humans with more than 9% of the caloric intake and 14% of the protein intake. Maize grows in central Mexico during the rainy season from June to October. While Mexico is self-sufficient in the production of corn for human consumption, half of the imports of corn grains to Mexico are for animal feed.
Many of these crops are important at the regional level. Wheat is the most important crop in the northwest, now the center of Mexico's cereal production. Other important crops in the northwest are winter vegetables such as tomatoes and lettuce, as well as oilseeds. The traditional zone of grain production in Mexico was the Bajío region. The area still produces wheat, corn, vegetables, peanuts, strawberries and beans, especially in small properties.
Wine grapes are grown in areas such as Baja California, Coahuila and Querétaro. Mexico produces two agricultural products that are not usually produced elsewhere: henequen, which is used to produce a strong fiber and maguey. Both belong to the family of American agaves. The maguey is used for the manufacture of pulque and mezcal. Tequila is a type of mezcal made from blue agave that is grown in a special area that remains, mostly, in the state of Jalisco.